Top 50 JAzz Blog

Thursday, July 11, 2019

4 Jazz Bad Boys


MILES DAVIS
Troop leader
of the Hip Patrol.
Change, like a tapeworm,
Eating out your gut.


ORNETTE COLEMAN
Ornette, the weird school kid. Intuited calculus. Flunked math.
Sneaked into the Band Room during English and tried to wrestle sounds from oboes and cellos.
Read comic books and slept with his homeroom teacher.
Liked his marching band uniform; lost a different piece of it every week.
Chess club.
Ornette, the weird school kid.
Bad reader. Simian line on his palm.
Juice fasts. Kools.
Brass, bow and reed junkie.
Hears one sound and devises a thousand ways to recreate it.



LESTER BOWIE
Man looks like an Algerian pharmacist:
Lucky Lester mixes the decoction,
Grinds the gris-gris.
And don’t worry about trying to find some damn philosopher’s stone.
Toys with the keys to the recombinant jazz gene lab. Sweeps up after closing and snorts what he finds on the floor.
Virus wrangler, germ dancer, spore fucker.



ARCHIE SHEPP
Hey man, you look like some kind of fucking duck. You hear me? Or some goose. Yea, some shit like that. You didn’t learn from no book. No, no book tell you how to make a face like a damn duck.
You blow that thing loud, right? You make some sounds. You blow tenor.
Allright.
You make some sounds like something inside that horn tryin’ to get out;
Reach up the neck of that horn and grab you by the throat;
squeeze you till you play what IT wants to hear.
Maybe that’s why you make that damn duck face.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

The Happy Place and All That Crap From China


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"The Happy Place" represents the confluence of some of the most debilitated and degraded concepts in America. The Military-Industrial complex ain't got nuthin' on this unholy alliance of Kardashians, corporations, Instagram and New Kids on the Block (Happy Place founder Jared Paul is that group's manager).
This depressing shrine to self-delusional nostalgia, kind of a "Pet Rock" writ large, is also an homage to the concept of waste: a full spectrum of un-recyclable plastic, mylar, etc; what we might call:
ALL THAT CRAP FROM CHINA
[This is a set of lyrics I wrote but have been too lazy to write a tune for. 
If anyone is interested, go for it.] 
VERSE
I WENT INTO THE DOLLAR STORE, TO FIND A B-LIST GIFT;
A WONDROUS PLACE FOR ANYONE, WHOSE CHIEF CRITERIA IS THRIFT.
THEIR STORE IS A CORNUCOPIA, A KNICK-KNACK-PACKED UTOPIA;
NOTHING COULD BE FINER THAN
A VERITABLE NIRVANA, OF USELESS CRAP FROM CHINA.

CHORUS
SMERFS AND NERFS AND PADDED BRAS
AND KNOCKOFF GUCCI LUGGAGE;
PEARLS AND FLAGS THAT YOU CAN FURL AND
EVEN REMNANT RUG-GAGE.

HAWAIAN SHIRTS AND POODLE SKIRTS
AND DIRKS FOR MARTIAL ART-NESS;
GOBS OF THINGS THAT SING AND RING AND
OFTEN GLOW IN DARKNESS.

BRIDGE
IT FILLS OUR HOMES, FROM ATTIC TO BASEMENT,
WHETHER YOU’RE RICH OR POOR.
WHO CAN RESIST THE LURE OF THE CHEAP,
CAUSE MAKING A CHANGE WOULD BE QUITE A LEAP.
AND THAT WOULD BE A BORE.

CHORUS
GOOGLY-EYED DOLLS AND PORCELAIN URNS
AND PLASTIC OF ALL TYPES.
LIKE IVORY TOOTHPICKS, LICORICE STICKS AND
SANITIZED HANDY WIPES.

PENS THAT FLOAT AND BUBBLEHEAD GOATS,
HATS THAT FIT SMALL HEADS.
CHATTERING TEETH, EMBARRASSING BRIEFS AND
LOTS OF TOYS MADE OF LEAD.

TRIO
LET'S STAND AND CHEER FOR A
VELVET VERMEER.
IT’S A VERY GOOD BET
THAT CHINESE SWEAT
PRODUCED THE STUFF YOU WEAR.

THE LANDFILLS ADORE
OUR TRASH GALORE
SO DON’T BE AFRAID JUST TO
THROW IT AWAY;
IT’LL BIODEGRADE SOME DAY.
  
CLOSER
TO YOU IT MAY BE DETRITUS, DREGS, JUNK,
RUBBISH, TRASH OR GUNK, 
BUT BUDDY, TO ME , 
NUTHIN' COULD BE FINA
THAN ALL THAT CRAP FROM CHINA!



Wednesday, April 10, 2019

One Night at the 1369 Jazz Club



On October 3, 1985, I brought my Walkman into the 1369 in Inman Sq., Cambridge and recorded singer/pianist Bob Dorough, trombonist Roswell Rudd (who also sings here), Beaver Harris on drums and another singer and bass player. Their identities are announced at about 55" but I can't decipher them. Maybe someone else can-or knows who they are.

During the course of the evening, unspeakable acts are performed by these musicians.

LISTEN HERE (one hour)

Friday, January 11, 2019

The Racial Politics of “Black Panther”




I'm not much for movies based on comics, but I saw “Black Panther”  because I'm a SAG voter and it's nominated for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. Since there is no "best picture" category, per se, this becomes the closest equivalent. (‘Black Panther’’ is also among the five films competing for the Best Adapted Screenplay award by the Writers Guild of America).

The hype around the movie was pretty loud, so while I didn’t look closely at the details, I knew that it had a black director and an almost completely black cast and that it featured a somewhat edenic, technologically advanced African country. Bravo, thought I, maybe the movement to get more minority representation in "big" films was starting to get some momentum. Now that I've seen the film, I'm kind of astonished that the actual somewhat regressive racial attitudes portrayed by the movie did not seem to be the subject of much, if any, public discussion.

I don't want to assume that people know the plot, so here’s a very brief recap (skip the next 3 paragraphs if you know it): 

The hero is T’Challa, son of the king of Wakanda, T'Chaka. T’Chaka was assassinated by Luke Claw, the main bad guy (Caucasian variety).

We learn that King T'Chaka killed his brother N'Jobu, because N'Jobu had transgressed the rules of Wakanda-he'd stolen some of their precious material vibranium, which he wanted to use to create powerful munitions for liberation movements around the world. N'Jobu had a son and after T'Chaka killed N'jobu, he chose to leave the child in the US and not take him back to Wakanda. This child, named N’Jadaka, grows up to be the chief antagonist to our hero T'Challa. We learn that as an adult, N’Jadaka joined the US military and the scores of symmetrically tattooed scars on his body testify to the many kills he racked up. He takes on the name Killmonger.

T'Challa goes on a mission to bring the assassin Luke Claw back to Wakanda, but fails; in part, because of Killmonger's intervention. For reasons of his own, Killmonger wants to kill Claw himself. He does and shows up in Wakanda with Claw’s body in tow and challenges T'Challa to a ritual fight to become the new king. He vanquishes T'Challa, assumes the throne and begins the process of sending powerful vibranium weapons to black liberation struggles around the world. The rest of the film is devoted to T'Challa retaking his throne from Killmonger and returning Wakanda to its pristine, isolated condition.

Let's take a look at how these two main characters are presented. T'Challa is a handsome man of noble bearing. He speaks clearly, as do all the residents of Wakanda, in an English inflected by a generalized African accent. Occasionally, the native Wakandan language is spoken. It may be rooted in an actual African dialect. I don't know, but it sounds convincing.

Killmonger, on the other hand, is inner city all the way. Apparently he's as much a killer in the comics as he is in the movie, but what is not said in the film is that he is not merely cunning, but very intelligent, studying technology at MIT. His hair is in modified dreadlocks and his talk is street. When he speaks the Wakandan language it sounds less “genuine.” He is portrayed as violent, vengeful and hateful, thus rendering his attitude about supporting liberation movements null and void. 

After Killmonger has lost the final battle with T'Challa and is sitting with a knife in his chest, he gives an emotional speech. He talks about the fact that his father had promised to take him to the beautiful Wakanda and of course, that it was never to be. T'Challa says that they can keep him alive if he so chooses (Wakanda has very advanced medicine) and Killmonger says no. He knows that if he is kept alive, he will be kept imprisoned. He chooses to die and pulls the knife out of his body. He asks to be buried in the sea, where his forefathers had leapt to their death from ships rather than being brought as slaves to America. This bloodthirsty character is willing to act on the basis of his knowledge and understanding of the history of his people.

There is also the interesting plot wrinkle that has a white CIA agent, Everett Ross, being taken for medical treatment to Wakanda after saving the life of a Wakandan in the course of a gun battle with Claw. As an ex-pilot, Ross is drafted to shoot down the planes trying to carry the contraband vibranium out of Wakanda in the culminating battle. He succeeds in heroic fashion.

This is all simply muddle-headed. On the one hand, the dire conditions that Africans suffered in America are acknowledged as are, during the course of the film, the subjugations that minority populations endure around the world. At the same time, proponents of anything but continuing the isolation of Wakanda are portrayed as thugs and/or traitors.

The crux of the film is whether Wakanda will export its technology or will remain isolated. The problem is posed in these terms: Either Wakanda retains its idyllic existence or it initiates a worldwide bloodbath. The last scene in the film attempts to ameliorate this dire dichotomy by returning us to the scene of the fratricide that took place at the begininng of the film. There, while young black kids playing basketball look on, T’Challa, who has bought up all the local real estate, brings down a Wakandan aircraft, the first step in bringing a cultural exchange center-part of a worldwide outreach effort.

Granted it is a comic put on film, but a project of this magnitude, calculated to appeal to a worldwide audience, has chosen to represent a political/cultural issue in a fairly retrograde way. Yes, this issue is far from simple: When, if ever, is armed struggle necessary to achieve political liberation? Unfortunately, the film is not prepared to actually address that problem, taking a reductionist, somewhat retrograde approach; one that pits black people against each other, with the “good” people on the side of isolation and the “bad” ones on the side of engagement in the struggle.


Sunday, November 25, 2018

The Jazz Brain

Neuroscientists and their associated kin are happy to tell us whenever they discover a new link between parts of the brain and some mental or physiological process. Treatments derived from this research seem to perpetually be "in the early stages," although some research has proven valuable in treatment of injuries to the brain itself.  Other neurological associations (the in utero "Mozart Effect," the "Crack Baby" phenomenon), seem to be the result of people finding what they're looking for, 

While others have hypothesized links between jazz, creativity and the brain, only the Institute has had the audacity to put its brains where its money is.

Finding the brains was not simple, but after we located a source for chloroform, we found ample volunteers among our pool of unpaid interns. We salute their valor in climbing into the Institute's MRI chamber.

Our medical staff was always on hand to make sure no untoward effects occurred. There was an occasional issue, but nothing our lawyers couldn't handle.
   


 

Before and After Monk
The above graphic is self-explanatory; and when you figure it out, let me know.

Tenor Sax Player's Brain Stem During Giant Steps in Gflat









More serious articles on this subject here and here and here


They don't call it hard science for nothing. It is hard.


Friday, May 4, 2018

Friday, April 6, 2018

Boston Jazz Venues-Come and Gone

With the help of a bunch of other people,  I compiled a list of venues in Boston that had live jazz, at least for a while. The list covers some ground, but is far from complete. Our good friend Dick Vacca has sent a new batch of entries, which you will see below my list. Be sure to check out his blog The Troy Street Observer
Izzy Ort's bar and Grill

1369 Club,
Accurate Records Loft, 
Ahmed's,
Arbor House, 
Ark of the Covenant, 
Back Bay Hilton,  
Backstreet,
Beantown Jazz Festival, 
Bebop, 
Beehive, 
Bella Luna, 
Berklee, 
Betty's Rolls Royce, 
Boston Arts Festival
Boston Conservatory at Berklee. 
Boston Globe Jazz Festival, 
BPL, 
Brothers in Brookline, 
CasaBlanca, 
CCP Studios, 
Charles St. Playhouse, 
Choppin Blok, 
Club 47
Club Zircon, 
Connelly's, 
Copley Plaza Bar, 
Costello's, 
Cronins, 
Darryl’s Corner Bar & Kitchen, 
Debbie's, 
Doyle's, 
Elbow Room, 
Ellis Room, 
Essex Hotel bar, 
Estelle's, 
Fairmount Grille, 
Friends of Great Black Music loft, 
Gallery East, 
Goodlife, 
Greene St Grill Cambridge,) Green St,( JP), 
Hasty Pudding, 
Hi Lo Lounge, 
Hotel Avery,
Hyde Park Jazz Festival, 
Inn Square Men's Bar. 
Izzy Ort's
Jazz Workshop/Pall's Mall, 
Joes, 
Johnny D's, 
Jonathan Swift's, 
Kresge Auditorium
Lennie's on the Turnpike, 
Les Zygomates, 
Lilypad,
Lizard Lounge, 
lue Parrot, 
Lulu White's, 
Magnolia Loft. 
Merry Go Round at the Copley Plaza, 
Michael's, 
Middle East Corner, 
Midway, 
Modern Theater, 
Most of the strip clubs had Hammond Trios, 
NEC, 
Nightstage, 
OCBC, 
Outpost 186,
Oxford Ale house, 
Paine Hall, 
Paris 25, 
Parker House, 
Performance Center in the Garage, 
Playground Series at the loft on Harrison Ave, 
Playland,
Plough and Stars, 
Pooh's Pub, 
Ramsey/Toy VFW Post, Dorchester, 
Real Deal jazz club at the Cambridge Multicultural Center, 
Regattabar, 
Rise Club
Ryles, 
Sandy's, 
Satch's, 
Savoy
Scotch and Sirloin, 
Sculler's, 
Slades, 
Space, 
Speakeasy, 
Starlite Roof, 
Stone Soup, 
Storyville,
Streetfood, 
Studio Red Top, 
Sunflower Cafe, 
Swifts, 
the (old)Winery, 
Thelonius Monkfish, 
Third Life Studio, 
Top of the Hub, 
various churches and libraries.
Village Smokehouse in Brookline, 
Vouros Bakery
Wally's, 
WBUR,
Western Front, 
WGBH, 
Willow, 
Wurst Haus, 
Your Father's Moustache
Zeitgeist Gallery 


From Dick:
These are mainly Boston jazz venues, or suburban spots inside Route 495, in operation from 1972 onward, but there are a few from the 1960s. Individual schools and churches are not included. And there were rock rooms like the Channel and the Paradise that had jazz on occasion, but not often enough to make the list.

Downtown Crossing/State St/Quincy Mkt
Bay Tower Room
Cafe Fleuri, Meridien Hotel
Chez Freddie
City Hall Plaza
Concerts on the Common
Cricket's
Gallagher's
Lily's
Michael's Waterfront
Sir Harry's

Theatre District
1-2-3 Lounge
Bradford Hotel Grand Ballroom
Caribe Lounge
Four Corners
Stuart Manor
The Vagabond
Tic Toc
Varty's Jazz Room

Park Square
Number 3 Lounge
Playboy Club
Saxony
The Other Side

Back Bay
Danny's
Darbury Room, became The Point After
Hatch Shell
Hotel Eliot Lounge
ICA Theatre
Jason's
Lenox Hotel
My Apartment Lounge
Office Lounge
Turner Fisheries

Huntington Ave
Club Symphony
Gardner Museum
Museum of Fine Arts
Zachary's

Roxbury/South End
Desert Lounge
Handy's Grill
Juice and Jazz
Piano Factory
Pioneer Club
Rainbow Lounge
Savoy on the Hill
The Station
Tinker's

Dorchester
Playhouse in the Park (Elma Lewis, Franklin Park)
Strand Theatre

Kenmore Square
Kix
Cafe Yana

East Boston
Airport Hilton
P.J.'s Lounge

Brookline/Brighton
Kismet Lounge
Papillon
Walters

Cambridge/Somerville
Atrium Lounge
Cantares
Lai-Lai
Spinnaker Lounge (Hyatt)
Springfields
Turtle Cafe

West of Boston
Bonfire, Westborough
Colonial Inn, Concord
Cottage Crest, Waltham
Decordova Museum, Lincoln
Ephriam's, Sudbury
Finally Michael's, Framingham
Matrix, Natick
Piety Corner Gardens, Waltham
Sticky Wicket, Hopkinton

North of Boston
Buddy's, Revere
Cafe Beaujolais, Gloucester
Club Caravan, Revere
Ebb Tide, Revere Beach
Lakeside, Topsfield
Oceanside Jazz and Big Band Festival, Winthrop
Romie's, Danvers
Stouffer's Bedford Glen Hotel, Bedford
The Surf, Revere Beach
Wagon Wheels, West Peabody

South of Boston
Boston Jazz Society's Jazz BBQ
Joseph's, Braintree
Great Woods Performance Center

Water Music's Jazz Boat

And you could always call the Jazzline at 262-1300

Saturday, February 10, 2018

Recent Concert Reviews

The crowd sings "Happy Birthday" to Lee Konitz after his 90th Birthday celebration concert. My coverage is at Artsfuse.org

Here's Brian Lynch burning on trumpet during the Curtis Brothers concert at the Regatta Bar. My coverage is here.

Friday, December 29, 2017

Martin Torgoff on the DuPlex

I was joined on the DuPlex Mystery Jazz Hour of 12.28.17 by Martin Torgoff, author of Bop Apocalypse; Jazz, Race, The Beats and Drugs. It was an interesting, wide-ranging conversation that used music as a guideline, as per the playlist below.

PLAYLIST

Louis Armstrong, Muggles. Fred Robinson, trombone; Jimmy Strong, clarinet; Earl Hines, piano; Mancy Carr banjo, and Zutty Singleton on drums.

Mezz Mezzrow, Revolutionary Blues. Tommy Ladnier, Sidney de Paris, t / Mezz Mezzrow, cl / James P. Johnson, p / Teddy Bunn, g / Elmer James, b / Zutty Singleton, d.

Rosetta Howard, If You’re A Viper. With The Harlem Hamfats 

Count Basie Orchestra, Every Tub

Billie Holiday, I Must Have That Man. Buck Clayton, t / Edmond Hall, cl / Lester Young, ts / James Sherman, p / Freddy Green, g / Walter Page, sb / Joe Jones, d

Charlie Parker, Ko Ko. Curly Russell on bass and Max Roach on drums. Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie played piano, but trumpet here instead of Miles Davis

Charlie Parker, Moose the Mooch. Miles Davis-tp, Lucky Thompson-tenor and Dodo Marmarosa-piano, Vic Macmillan-bass, Arvin Garrison-drums

Charlie Parker, Lover Man. Charlie Parker (alto sax), Howard McGhee (trumpet), Jimmy Bunn (piano), Bob Kesterson (bass), Roy Porter (drums)

Wardell Gray, The ChaseBass-Don Bagley Drums –Chico Hamilton, piano-Bobby Tucker B
  • Tenor Saxophone –Dexter Gordon, Wardell Grey 

Miles Davis, Round Midnight. Miles Davis – trumpet, Paul Chambers-bass, John Coltrane – tenor-Red Garland – piano, Philly Joe Jones – drums

John Coltrane, My Favorite Things. McCoy Tyner piano, Steve Davis bass, Elvin Jones drums 


Saturday, December 23, 2017

Chet Baker Vocals: A New Emotional Space


There were a lot of transitions and innovations in pop and jazz singing during the 1950's. Some of these were triggered by technology-tape recording/editing, hi fi, stereo, new microphones and the long playing record (LP). Other transitions reflected innovations in arranging and instrumentation and the movement of "race music" into the mainstream via rock and roll. Leaving aside innovators in blues, R&B and rock and roll, there were two musicians who effected changes in vocal jazz and pop: Frank Sinatra and yes, Chet Baker.

Frank Sinatra and his arrangers Billy May and Nelson Riddle in "In the Wee Small Hours" (1955) and "Songs for Swingin' Lovers!" (1956) bridged a popular music gap and showed that songs could swing and still deliver an intimate romantic message. 

Chet Baker's style of singing on "Chet Baker Sings" (1954) finished off what Bing Crosby started. Crosby had initiated the movement from "hot" to "cool," as he taught singers how to use the microphone. But, even though Bing's style was relatively laid back, he still used "hot" techniques like vibrato, slurs and small ornamentations to "sell" the tune. This continued to be the standard, but Baker took it a step further, either eliminating or dramatically taking down the heat of these techniques. Also, in the range and timbre of his voice, he did not sound as a man singing was supposed to. Given the negative response by fellow musicians, friends and critics, it took some guts for Baker to continue to sing.
Louis Prima
Baker was one in a long line of trumpet players who sang. Louis Armstrong, Jabbo Smith, Roy Eldridge, Bunny Berigan, Louis Prima, Hot Lips Page and Dizzy Gillespie all sang well. They thought of themselves as entertainers, liked to sing and were happy to give their chops a break. Berigan's style was lighter, but even after he had a hit with "I Can't Get Started," he almost always deferred to a band singer and just played. The rest of those guys sang with a ballsier approach, sometimes ironic or sly, often bluesy. Armstrong always sang romantic tunes, but I hear an artfulness that separates the singer from the object of his affection and the song itself becomes the object. He did sing with great tenderness in the last phase of his career. Baker's singing was the first in this lineage that said out loud: "This is what it means to be vulnerable." 

Baker's trumpet playing was not unique. It was distinguishable from but similar to the playing of others active at that time, like Jack Sheldon, Don Fagerquist, Don Joseph, Tony Fruscella and John Eardley. Of these, only Jack Sheldon also sang. His voice was better than Baker's, but his singing style ranged from cooing drollness to belting. To Sheldon, romantic meant sexy, while Chet was never so indiscreet, or overt. His sexiness was hidden below layers of romanticism and self-protection. 
Jimmy Scott

Rhythmically and in note choice, Baker's singing paralleled his playing. But the fragility, tremulousness and high tenor range of his voice amplified the vulnerable quality of the music. The only voice like it belonged to (Little) Jimmy Scott, who had a hit in 1950 with Lionel Hampton's "Everybody's Somebody's Fool" and who showed up in the same year with Charlie Parker, singing "Embraceable You," but Scott sang with all of the heat that Baker eschewed.

Reading about Baker's foray into singing is like wading into a critical abattoir. Almost no one liked it-musicians, friends or critics. 

There are conflicting stories about how Baker's vocals got recorded. Some say he demanded it and that owner of the Pacific jazz label Dick Bock balked. Others say that Bock wanted it and Baker resisted. Either way, it seems to be true that Baker's inexperience(or ineptitude) made for innumerable retakes, marathon sessions and a lot of audio cutting and pasting. 

Two things were not subject to criticism. One was his phrasing, which rhythmically paralleled his playing. The second was his scatting note choice, which reflected the melodic gift he shows in his trumpet solos.

There was a lot of criticism about his singing out of tune. I'm pretty sensitive to people staying in tune and I don't hear the problem very much, except on some held notes-the hardest to sing in tune and beyond his vocal support system.

Critics blasted his lack of affect, saying his singing lacked emotional weight. Much was made about the girlish, non-masculine quality of his voice. Often this critique was accompanied by an analysis of Baker's life choices-drug use and callousness toward women. People want the artist's life to reflect directly the qualities they find in the art and positive and negative projections about Baker were off the charts. He was worshipped and reviled. Some thought he sang (and looked) like an angel. Others saw him nod out or act like a cad and heard that in the music. 

What I think made critics most uncomfortable is that Baker didn't sing like a man. I've heard people ask, when they heard Baker sing, whether that was a man or a woman. One can only imagine how many such comments were passed in the day. For most of its history, jazz has been a macho culture. Sexual ambiguity or gay-ness were subjects of derision. Chet was heterosexual, but for him to sing the way he did was almost to "come out." Of course, Baker wasn't consciously making a political-sexual point. When he responded to interviewers who challenged his masculinity, he made certain to reaffirm that he liked girls, not "fellers."

Moving from being just a trumpet player to becoming a jazz vocalist/leading man, seeing the response it got from critics and especially from fellow musicians, cannot have been easy. Baker may or may not have been using heavy drugs before "Chet Baker Sings," but there's no doubt that he became more deeply enmeshed in heroin and speed during this period. It's not a big stretch to think that drugs and the incredibly strong response by women to his singing helped Baker weather the brickbats and continue to sing. 

It's appropriate that his most famous vocal tune is "My Funny Valentine." In this Rodgers and Hart tune, we have a psychic match between performer and song. This is a song that spells out the imperfections of the lover ("is your figure less than greek, is your mouth a little weak, when you open it to speak are you smart"). Look at the title itself-my "funny" valentine; not that the lover is funny/humorous, but funny as in-how did this happen-how did I end up with someone like you. This is love as mystery, song as mystery, sung by a musician whose life was lived publicly, but who was a mystery. Yes, we know the biographical facts of Baker's life, but the inner life was shrouded in layers of romanticism and self-protection.

It's difficult to show the influence Baker had, as he didn't overtly inspire a generation of male singers. Most tenor-range jazz vocalists remained more beholden to older approaches. Jimmy Scott, Tony Bennett, Johnny Mathis, Mose Allison, Oscar Brown, Jr., Mark Murphy, Jackie Paris and Sammy Davis, Jr. were all much "hotter" singers. 

But I contend that Chet Baker changed the "field" and in so doing influenced these singers. He brought the ethos of cool to a kind of climax by moving into territory that had once belonged only to female vocalists and opened up the emotional space to show vulnerability; a space that male singers had previously shied away from and which they were now more likely to inhabit. 

Ironic that Chet Baker, who created such distance between himself from others was able to transmute this distance into a kind of intimacy that had rarely, if ever, been expressed in the pop-jazz male voice.